Arab scientists, Sabeos, Doctors and Philosophers.

Al-Khwarizmi

Alfarabi

 Abentofail

Ibn Sina

   Ibn Jaldún

Ibn Arabí

Abulcasis

Ibn Wafid

Al-Khwarizmi (780-850)

The most known the Arab mathematicians it is Mohammed Ibn Musa Al-Khwarizmi (780-850), conodido like father of algebra. One little knows of its life unless it lived in first half of the century IX and that it worked in the library of the caliph of Bagdad. It wrote books on geography, mathematical astronomy and. In its Artimetic work ("Algoritmi of I number indorum") it explains with detail the operation of the decimal system and the zero that used in India. Work of great importance because it contributed to the diffusion of the Indian system of numeration and to the knowledge of the zero

Alfarabi 870-950

Abu Nasr Muhammad Al-Farabi (Alpharabius, Avennasar, Alfarabi) it was born near Farab, in the Turquestán, 870 (259 h.), and passed away in Damascus, with eighty years, in December of 950 (339 h.). It lived in the Baghdad, where bn Haylan listened to the lessons of the Christian doctor Yuhanna, being condiscípulo of also the Christian Abu Bisr Matta, translator of Aristotle. It also lived in Alepo and Damascus. It wrote works of philosophy, mathematics and medicine, commentaries to works of Plato and those of Aristotle, and although many of them are had lost, us have arrived a thirty in their original Arab, six in Hebrew and three in Latin, aside from some fragments.

Abentofail 1110-1185

Doctor and philosopher andalusí, born in Guadix (Granada) before 1110, and passed away in Marrakex in 1185, lived during the period on philosophical tolerance and cultural freedom that enjoyed the kingdoms taifas before the Islamic fundamentalist predominance. Influenced by also the doctor and zaragozano philosopher Avempace (1070-1138), in individual by its Regime of the solitaire, as well as by the doctrines of the intellectual éxtasis maintained by Avicena and the sufismo of Algacel, we conserved of him only one builds, who exerted remarkable influence in Europe after his Latin translation of 1671, under a title that has prospered: Philosophus autodidactus, the philosopher autodidact.

 

AVICENA (IBN SINA)

Muslim philosopher, his complete name: Abü ´Ali al-Husayn ´Abd Allah b. ´Ali b. Sina and, according to the Spanish pronunciación that trasluce in the Latin versions of s. XII, gave rise to the Aven-Seine or Avicena. Life. N. in 980, Afsana, villa near Bujara (Turquestán). His father, accommodated well, belonged to the public administration. From boy he showed his extraordinary intellectual dowries, that he used in the study of the Corán, right, religious logic, geometry, sciences, astronomy, philosophy and medicine. He had much to the Greek culture, by means of Porfirio, Euclides, Ptolomeo, Galen, Alexander de Afrodisia and mainly of Aristotle. He read 40 times his Metaphysics and, according to he himself he confesses, he did not manage to penetrate in her until he studied the commentaries of al-Farabi, done who constituted for him an authentic revelation. Before the 20 years already it was an expert medicine consomme' being able to cure thus to sultán of Bujara, which, been thankful, opened the doors to him of its library so that it could continue his studies.

Ibn Arabí

Sometimes, the mystical experiences and the own life pass so of the hand that is difficult to differentiate where one finishes and begins the other. This one is the case of the sufí teacher of the century XII Ibn Arabí, that knew that "it had been chosen" by means of a dream, it maintained mysterious "encounter" with the previous Qutb of the Islamic spirit, carried out bilease phenomena and predicted before dying the finding of a fabulous treasure. An authentic "sufí magician" whose intellectual legacy - more than 400 works he is still more prodigious that its risky life.

IBN JALDÚN

Six hundred years ago for the first time a scientific and sociological conception of the history combined with a deep theological thought was pronounced. The fact happened in the Islamic world and the honor fell on the Tunisian poligraph Ibn Jaldún, of which we offer a summary profile along with several appointments of its Maxima work, "the prolégomenos to universal history", call in Arab al-Muqaddimah

 

ARAB MEDICINE

Rhazes (865-932), like the classic authors were interested in the prevention of the diseases and the use of the diets in their treatment, the benefit and the damage of the baths, outstanding is had its understanding of the moral treatment in the mental diseases. It defends the alchemy. The prevention is more important that therapy, and the dietetic one is more important that the audacious intervention. The psychic attention of the patient is essential condition of all treatment.


Abulcasis one worried about psychological problems, like the education of the children. Their contributions to the ethics and the clinical practice were also important.

Husain - Ioannitius it divides the medicine in Therapeutic Hygiene and, and therapeutic one included the dietetic one, the medical matter (farmacoterapia) and the surgery, really the classic ternary scheme of Celso. The first passage of the treatment was the dietetic one and in as much it prevented the disease, the dietetic one was formed like hygiene and it became according to the particularitities biological of the person (young, old, biliary, flemático, etc.), the activity or profession of this one and the station of the year.


Avicena (980-1037) it calls "necessary factores" to the six nonnatural things. The famous Canon wrote, very used during the following centuries. The even health he does not come from the doctor "The health provides a principle very superior to the doctor, the principle that exclusively provides to the matter its essential form. Its essence is more remarkable that the matter" As much Rhaces as Avicena also took care of the sexual hygiene in their texts and regulation the use of the bath.


Ibn Wafid  (1008-1075), it was born in Toledo where it studied medicine and one became familiar with texts of Aristotle, Dioscórides and Galeno. Is partisan of not using composed medicines, only simple and these to even avoid them if the patients can be cured only with the diet. He also published a text on balneotherapy.


Avenzoar (1092-1162) it was born in Seville and it maintained narrow friendship with Averroes. It recommended the use of the cold water to diminish the fever. It insisted on the curative value of the diets, it came up against the abuse of medicines, and recommended to always begin administering drugs in small doses and to increase them if good effects after three days were observed. It maintained the convenience of ample spaces and pure air to maintain the health and also wrote on the diet. Abd al-Habid, gives to norms of hygiene or prevention and writes on the medicine prohibition certain.


Averroes (1126-1198) it put emphasis in the regimes of life and the diet.

Maimónides (1135-1204) it was born in Cordova. In century XII the center of the Arab culture moves towards "al-Andalus". Maimónides gives to rules on the hygienic life and the diets, and recommends not to use medicines. If these were necessary, must be used always weakest and prefer the medication with simple to the complex formulas. It maintains, according to Laín Entralgo, that the man is responsible for his health and can for that reason influence the duration of the life. It is necessary to reinforce the natural forces by means of the spiritual foods, as well as forces through the good scents.

 

 

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